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 Program Resume - Greater Baku Water Supply Rehabilitation Project (WB)

 Duration: 31.12.1994 - present
 Location: Baku
 Sectors: Water and sanitation

 (Excerpt from World Bank Project: 7AZEPA007 / AZ8288 : 1995)


1. Azerbaijan lies on the southeastern flanks of the Caucasus mountains and is one of the smallest countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The population of Azerbaijan is estimated at about 7.4 million people (1993) with over half of the population living in urban areas. It is endowed with fertile agricultural land and natural resources, including substantial underdeveloped petroleum reserves. During 1992, after three years of relatively small declines, Azerbaijan's economy underwent a particularly sharp contraction with a rapid acceleration of inflation. These trends continued into 1993 and early 1994. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1993 was only about 60 percent of its 1988 level. The worsening economic situation in 1993 was also marked by a serious deterioration in both the fiscal and external balances.

2. Baku, the capital city, is the administrative, cultural, commercial and industrial center of Azerbaijan. Its population is nearly 2.6 million (1993), including 380,000 refugees from Nagorno-Karabakh, represents nearly 35 percent of the national population. At present, the city's water facilities offer a poor and declining service to about 2.5 million users. Industry has historically received priority in the allocation of water resources, with domestic water rationing the norm. Recently the water supply problem increased, especially for households, because of a marked physical deterioration in the systems. In the larger urban areas, many households are restricted to six hours or less of piped water per day. While nearly all of Baku's households are considered officially connected to the public water supply system, on average water is available to individual families for only 22 days per month for a maximum of 11 hours per day. Data provided by the BWA suggest that unaccounted for water is extraordinarily high and varies between 65 percent and 70 percent of production.

3. The major constraints to water sector development are endemic and include: (i) the lack of finance for maintenance, rehabilitation, and, in the longer term, new investment; (ii) the lack of a proper policy framework; and (iii) a noncommercial approach to pricing. There are a number of agencies and ministries, often with overlapping or unclear lines of authority, which impede the efficient development of multisectoral planning, programming, and budgeting initiatives. The result is a piecemeal response to sectoral needs that focuses on the installation of large-scale physical infrastructure projects. Because many of these facilities were not operationally integrated into a program of asset maintenance and improvement at the planning and implementation stage, operating and maintenance requirements customarily receive low priority in the national budgeting process. Today, many of the water infrastructure systems, especially the canals, reservoirs and water production and distribution networks, have regressed into a state of systemic degradation, exhibiting the accumulated effect of decades of inadequate maintenance.

4. Institutionally, the Ministry of Housing and Communal Property (MOHCP) owns and operates regional and municipal water supply (BWA and its affiliate water distribution company, BWD) and sewerage agencies which are responsible for the bulk transmission, treatment and distribution of potable water and the collection and disposal of sewage. Sewerage services are provided by the municipalities. The Baku Water Agency (BWA) is badly in need of reorganization of its services. It is characterized by an anachronistic, unresponsive corporate model inherited from the Soviet system; fragmented organization and operations; nearly nonexistent maintenance, given lack of supplies and equipment; an absence of collection and reporting of information and ineffective enforcement of collection of arrears; and accounting system that does not yield even the most basic management information. In light of the current crisis in provision of basic water supply, the Government has requested Bank assistance to address the most urgent aspects of water infrastructure rehabilitation.


5. The primary objectives of the project are twofold: first, to make such emergency improvements as are possible in the short term, to improve the system operations as a whole, and to provide the basis for longer term planning; and second, to restore the water supply to Baku, in particular to the poorer elements of the population, before the danger of serious health problems increase (cholera has recently been reported) due to lack of water in the city.


6. The Project will comprise five major components:

  • Water Demand Management - conserving water at the household level through a program of consumer awareness initiatives, through repairs to in-home plumbing, valves, taps and other fittings, and by rationalizing water use through meter installations and the implementation of a progressive water tariff;
  • Operations and Maintenance Improvements - increasing the amount of water available from the distribution system through a program of leak detection and repair, workshop and equipment acquisition, and at least a one year inventory of selected replacement valves and pipes;
  • Supply Improvements - improving the quantity and quality of water from the treatment works and enhancing the reliability of the distribution network through a program of selective rehabilitation of the major water treatment plants and pumping stations; Institutional Capacity Building - reorganizing the water utility into a joint stock company, the Apsheron Regional Water Company (ARWC) and strengthening its institutional capacity through a twinning arrangement with an experienced water utility; the consolidation of ARWC offices in a new headquarters building; purchase and installation of computers and requisite software programs; and the development and implementation of training programs aimed at improving both operational and administrative effectiveness; and
  • Studies - preparation and implementation of a national policy framework for the water sector, preparation of a regional water supply and sewerage master plan, and the development of a second phase Project.

    7. The total estimated cost of the Project is US$90.2 million. IDA is expected to finance US$45.0 million, EBRD US$27.0 million, European Union US$4.0 million and the Government US$14.2 million.


    8. The proposed project could be implemented by the Apsheron Regional Water Company (ARWC).


    9. Project sustainability is envisaged through a combination of gradually increasing user charges and gradually decreasing Government transfers.


    10. The project falls within the category of Environmentally Sustainable Development. In this connection, the project will significantly reduce the public health risks associated with the existing quantity and quality of water. Further, project benefits will transcend the entire income distribution curve in Baku, benefiting the low-and-high income families in about equal proportions. Improvements to the quality and quantity of water for Baku will also extend to about a half million people living beyond the city limits in the surrounding hinterland. The project will also assist the productive sectors by increasing the availability of a critically needed commodity, notably a reliable and sustainable supply of potable water.


    11. This is a category B project. A limited environmental assessment report will be prepared in the context of project preparation.

    Contact Point: Public Information Center

  • The World Bank
    1818 H Street N.W.
    Washington D.C. 20433
    Telephone No.: (202)458-5454
    Fax No.: (202)522-1500
  • ________

    Note: This is information on an evolving project. Certain components may not necessarily be included in the final project.


    Greater Baku Water Supply Rehabilitation Project
    Environmental Analysis

    A. Project Impact and Environmental Rating

    1. The Baku Water Supply Rehabilitation Project, as an emergency project, is designed to address urgent operational and administrative needs of the water sector. The project has been assigned a category B rating. No significant environmental effects are anticipated other than a slight increase in vehicular traffic in some parts of the city and some disruption in traffic flows caused by pipelines being replaced. Mitigating measures will be taken to abate noise and dust from construction activities as well as to redirect traffic so as not to impede normal flows unnecessarily or for extended periods. There will also be a slight increase in sewage flows as a result of increased water pressure; however, the increase in water supply in targeted areas and better water quality will offset this effect. A sewage operation is planned as a second phase following implementation of the proposed rehabilitation project. The expected operational and administrative improvements under the current project should quicken the pace of implementing a subsequent operation to improve the sewage situation of the Apsheron Peninsula.

    B. Overview of the Water Sector

    Water Supply Sources and Quality

    2. Baku City and the Apsheron Peninsula are fed with water from three principal sources: Shollar and Hachmas intakes, Jeiranbatan reservoir, and the Kura river. In addition, there is local exploitation of ground water. For the public potable system, the water from the Shollar and Hachmas intakes requires only chlorination. The water from Jeiranbatan reservoir and Kura river receives full treatment at two large treatment works. There is no systematic collection of water quality data on exploitation from ground sources. Available data from research studies confirmed a wide range water quality depending on the source.

    3. Sources of drinking water supply include Shollar and Hachmas intakes, with a flow rate of 1.27 m3/s. They are named after towns located 180 km north of Baku. Both intakes are fed by underground water of sediments of quaternary age represented lithologically by gravel and mixed sands. The water bearing strata are protected against vertically migrating pollutants by relatively thick clay rocks. The water from these intakes is fresh and meets national standards for potable water. Mineralization ranges between 1-3 and 15-30 g/l and more. The water composition is chloride-sulphate and chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium.

    4. The Jeiranbatan reservoir, situated km north of Baku, is supplied by the Samuron canal, built in 1956, with a total storage volume of 186.6 Mm3 and a useful storage capacity of 150.3 Mm3. The Samuron canal carries freshwater originating in a mountainous area that is thinly populated, with no large industries. After treatment, water quality meets national standards (GOST 2874-82). Solid residuals range between 126-426 mg/l, and total hardness from 2 to 14 mgeq/l. Among anions, hydrocarbonates (177-647 mg/l) dominate over sulphates (32-236 mg/l) and chlorides (4-16 mg/l). Last summer light algae blooms were observed in some areas of the reservoir, which confirmed potential for airborne or agricultural pollution. The unfavorable location of the reservoir and lack of buffer zone will need to be addressed to minimize this source of water pollution.

    5. Lack of reliable environmental monitoring data make estimation the scale and nature of Kura river pollution extremely difficult to measure. There are many examples where estimations are too general or contradictory. Lack of industrial and municipal treatment facilities in the river basin as well as intensive agriculture production (cotton) in the river's upper reaches lead to the conclusion that riverain water is polluted. The hydrochemical composition and quality of riverain water are related to the intensity of industrial production, community infrastructure, and the type of agricultural activity in the basin. Water that belongs to the sulphate-hydrocarbonate category of sodium or calcium group, with very high natural turbidity, varies seasonally, ranging from 500 to 60,000 mg/l.

    6. Groundwater in the peninsula appears sporadically. In the western part, it appears in the form of patches and in the east and around Baku it occurs everywhere at a depth of 1-30m. The quality of water depends on the area, i.e, salinization typically varies between 1 to 50 g/l and more. The best quality of water resources can be found near or in Bilga, Buzavna, and Mandakyan. Water is poorly mineralised (1-3 mg/l) and reaches aost 90,000 m3/d.

    7. As a consequence of the rise in the level of the Caspian Sea, in several areas in the east part of the peninsula (e.g., Guzavny), water from the dikes has begun flooding settlements and arable cultivated fields.

    8. Most of the groundwater resources are contaminated by industrial and municipal wastes dumped or discharged in the area. The source of water pollution in the distribution system is inflow of dirty ground water, accumulated due to bursts of sewerage and water supply pipes. Open-cast mines and rubbish dumps filled with water are possible sources of pollution, not only for the distribution pipework but for reservoirs as well (see 1/). Underground water that is unprotected from pollutants in the natural environment should only be used by industries, which today is not the case.

    9. According to the results of a survey by the Baku Sanitary and Epidemiological Center, of 764 water samples taken from the distribution system in all 11 districts of Baku over a 9-month period in 1994, 24.6% do not meet state standards for potable water on bacteriological indices and 86.8% on chemical analysis (see 2/).

    Waste Water Collection and Treatment

    10. The City of Baku is served by a sewerage system most of which was constructed during the 1950s. About 1,300,000 m3/day has been estimated by the Baku Sewage Company as the total quantity of sewage generated within the Baku administrative area. Other calculations indicate that the quantity may be about half this amount, and that the per capita volumes of sewage generated are about half of the values of official estimates.

    11. Nearly 60% of Baku is not provided with communal sewerage. Hence, waste water from Azizbekov, Bingadi, Surachani, and the Nizami-Karadag region is discharged into lakes and pits in the neighborhood. Only 70,000 and 17,000 m3, respectively, of waste water (per day) are discharged into Beuyk-Shor and Byul-Byul lakes; however, the water in four other lakes-Beyuk Shor, Byul Byula, Ganii Gel and Krasnoye (southwest Baku)--is reported to be rising to dangerously high levels. Houses in Amiradzhany, east of lake Byul Byula, have been flooded. According to the Baku Sewage Company, the rise in water level is attributed to sewage inflows (see 3/).

    12. In the Baku area, pollution is also caused by health care institutions. There are 92 hospitals and 11 medical institutes in the Baku area, and none of them is equipped with adequate facilities for the sterilization of wastes before they are discharged into the sewage network (see 4/).

    13. In the city, area the sewerage system and storm water systems have become partially combined in response to the rainfall in some of the newer districts of the city, where surface water sewerage is absent or inadequate to handle the sewage overflow. According to rough estimates, about 700 m3/day of untreated effluent is discharged into the sea. There are 50 outfalls discharging sewage into the Bay of Baku, of which 19 are industrial, 17 are municipal and 14 combined systems, some of them visible from the sea front promenade (see 5/).

    14. Several housing areas and settlements throughout the Apsheron Peninsula do not have proper sewage collection and disposal facilities. In the absence of municipal sewerage, residents, either individually or in community groups, have installed private systems. Sewage is discharged into the nearest lake or a ground soakway. Settlements served by such sewerage facilities include: Binagadi and Rasulzadi near lake Beyuk Shor, and Syul Byula, Surakhani, and Amiradzhany near Lake Byul Byula.

    15. Another problem is created by 45,000 summer houses located on the Apsheron Peninsula. Only a few of them are connected to the sewage network, while the others use septic tanks, allowing wastes to penetrate the groundwater. Owners of those settlements either bring drinking water in containers or drill their own wells and use local groundwater resources. Wastes are disposed of illegally on land in the neighborhood.

    16. There are four sewage treatment plants serving the Baku administrative area: Govsani (mechanical and biological) with a nominal treatment capacity of 600,000 m3/day; Zikh (mechanical) with a treatment capacity 70,000 m3/day; Mardakan/Shuvelan (mechanical) with the treatment capacity of 18,600 m3/day; and Khodzhasan with the treatment capacity of 18,600 m3/day. The total nominal treatment capacity of the plants located in the Baku area is 707,200 m3/day.

    Industrial Effluent

    17. The Apsheron Peninsula is one of the oldest oil producing regions in the world. As a result of over a century of oil exploitation, the surface and underground hydrosphere has greatly changed. Oil exploitation and its distribution has led to deterioration of soil and water caused by oil spills and oil exploration activities. There are nearly 7,000 hectares of land polluted by the oil, with thickness varying from 2.5 meters to 20 meters. This has led to flowage, underflooding, bogging, an increase of abrasion processes, pollution of the Caspian Sea, and other deleterious effects. The absence of a sewage network and treatment system and the lack of legal regulation and enforcement facilitates dumping municipal and industrial wastes into the Apsheron Peninsula area and the surrounding lakes, as discussed below.

    18. Many years of mismanagement practices in oil exploitation-e.g., cleaning of the pipelines caused an accumulation of radionuclides (from radium-226, thorium-228, potassium 40) in the soil of the Apsheron Peninsula. In some places, soils should be buried as radioactive waste. In the past, the city of Baku together with the neighboring city, Sumgait, were among the leading industrial centers in the Soviet Union, with a total production value of about 3.5 billion rubles in 1988. The following types of industrial activity are represented in the area: petrochemical, metal processing, machine building, pulp and paper, and food processing. Concentration of such industrial activities, in conjunction with a total lack of environmental concern, resulted in tremendous environmental devastation of the region caused by uncontrolled emissions and dumps.

    19. Officially, Baku has one disposal site for solid waste, in Balakhanskaya. For many years, no precise measurements were taken of the quantity of solid industrial and domestic wastes, and currently the area of dumping has not been estimated. The utilization, disinfection, and incineration of industrial toxic wastes is extremely unsatisfactory (see 6/).

    20. A resolution was passed in 1979 instructing industry to pretreat effluents from all industrial plants before they are discharged into the sewage system. A small number of industrial enterprises pretreat their effluent before discharging it into the sewers. The majority discharge effluent without pretreatment, and thus jeopardize the treatment processes at sewage treatment plants.

    21. A large number of artificial ponds and reservoirs appear on the surface as a result of waste water discharge. At Biby-Eybat, a (main dumping area), about 140 reservoirs have appeared. The ground water table in the area has risen five meters since 1940. Another problem is the deterioration of the relict (glacial) lakes on the Apsheron Peninsula, with their tremendous biodiversity (Beyuk-Shor, Byul-Byuly, Gadji-Gasan, Zykh, etc), which are now completely polluted.

    Bay of Baku

    22. The location of the Bay of Baku, which fronts a densely populated area of the city with promenades, theaters, restaurants, and crowded streets, makes the quality of its environment of utmost importance. The high concentration of activities on the periphery of the Bay together with heavy pollution creates an additional health hazard with the population of the Baku Metropolitan area.

    23. The Bay is heavily polluted by discharges from several industrial and municipal facilities. The daily anthropogenic input on the Bay of Baku is estimated at about 500,000-700,000 m3 of untreated sewage and industrial wastes discharged by 50 outlets located along the harbor and the bay (see attached map).

    24. The bottom layer of water is heavily polluted by oil compounds (80-150 mg/l). As a result of continuous oil spills, the sediments of the Bay are polluted by oil as well. Some estimations are from 2.9 to 4.5 million tons of oil substances have been deposited in the sediments of the 5-meter deep bay. Also, there is a lack of benthic organisms in the central part of the bay, and there are occurrences of zooplankton and fitobenthos on the stones. The bacterioplankton flora are dominated by saprofits. The bottom part of the water is inhabited by anaerobic organisms or sedimentation organisms.

    25. From spring until early autumn, anaerobic processes appear in the lower part of the bay of H2S and ammonia. Biological life is represented by bacteria and zooplankton and fitobenthos (diatomea) in the Shihowskij Plose area. In the bay, fish appear sporadically with a broad variety of parasites and pathogenic changes on their bodies in form of red patches, ulcers, or genetic changes of the organs.

    C. Environment and Health Issues

    26. The main findings of the environmental analysis showed that low quality of drinking water and related health risk are mainly caused by the poor condition of both water supply and sewage systems in the city, which creates the potential for cross-contamination of the drinking water by leaking sewage and industrial wastes.

    27. Lack of adequately designed special waste disposal sites, which would meet sanitary requirements for toxic waste; damage to sewage pipes; the absence of sewerage in some districts of Baku; poorly operated reservoirs and water distribution networks; and excessive air pollution-all have aggravated the ecological situation of the Apsheron Peninsula and the City of Baku, and negatively affected the health of the population. The total incidence of the medically determined waterborne and water diseases in Baku has remained relatively stable over the last 10 years at between 634 to 797 per 100,000 population, but with a significant rise to 985 in 1993.

    28. Whereas in the Baku diseases can be related to several causes, in the city of Sumgait there is a clear link between diseases there and industrial activities. Some of the chemicals produced there are carcinogens, especially chlororganic products such as hexachlorane, DDT, Lindane, etc. Others cause severe birth defects and embriotoxic effects. On average, 27 out of 1,000 newborns do not survive the first year and others are affected by numerous illnesses. On the other hand, the majority of industrial plants in Baku or the Apsheron Peninsula have been developed without environmental control equipment or adequate buffer zones.

    29. The only regions in Greater Baku where there is an evident relationship between the quality of water and epidemic diseases are the Azbekov and Sabunhinsky regions, where it is reported that about 30% of the population suffers from unacceptable water quality.

    D. Environmental Institutions

    30. Degradation of the environment in the Baku Metropolitan area can be largely attributed to the inherent inefficiencies of a centrally planned economy. Centralized, ineffective enforcement of environmental laws and standards, an inefficient system of environmental management, and lack of public participation in the process of environmental protection and management, has resulted in the degradation of the environment.

    31. Most of the environmental issues described above result from lack of an environmental legal and regulatory framework, including a permit system and appropriate industrial zoning. Improvement of city planning based on realistic environmental standards and regulations is a matter of urgency.

    32. Environmental protection is currently under the supervision of the following institutions: State Committee for Ecology and its regional offices, which is placed under the authority of the Office of the President; the State Committee for Hydrometerology; the Ministry of Agriculture; and the Ministry of Construction. In addition, within the Ministry of Health, the Sanitary-Epidemiological Authority is responsible for monitoring water quality relative to public health.

    33. There is a urgent need to upgrade the existing environmental monitoring system in two respects: first, the Baku Water Company will need to monitor water quality in the reservoirs and distribution system in the city; and second Hydromet will need to monitor the quality of the Kura river Samuron channel. Lack of resources caused a recent reduction in existing potential to monitor water quality.

    34. A significant amount of expertise and training will be required at all levels to strengthen the enforcement capabilities for dealing with polluters who do not comply with the conditions established by environmental permits and licenses.

    35. The environmental monitoring structure system in the Republic has been developed according to the past sectoral administrative division of the country, which involves a number of ministries. In the past, four institutions were responsible for environmental monitoring; the Water Management Committee; Comwodhos; Goscomgeologija; and Azgoshydromet. All of them are now facing serious problems caused by the lack of financial resources. The following institutions are additionally involved in environmental monitoring and research:

    • Department of Water Supply and Canalization of the Azerbaijan Engineering Institute No. 2. The Construction Institute-standards of drinking water for the industrial sector;
    • "Azwodgeo", Water Treatment Laboratory-hydraulics of the municipal network;
    • International Ecoenergy Academy, Department of Water Ecosystems;
    • Oil Academy-water and wastewater treatment processes;
    • Laboratory for Water Treatment Technology; and
    • Committee on Hydrogeology and Geology of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    36. There are 200 monitoring stations (sampling points) in the Republic where samples are analyzed in several mobile and central laboratories. According to the Committee on Ecology, these laboratories have the capacity to analyze all the main parameters, excluding detergents and herbicides.

    • a. Marine Monitoring. Nine vessels in service in 1990 under the; Hydromet, Goskomecologia, Academy of Sciences, Yuzazrybwod; now only three of them are partially involved in monitoring/research activity.
      • i. Hydromet - two vessels and central stationary laboratory in Baku established nine marine monitoring stations located along the sea coast. The measures covered the following main hydrochemical parameters: oils, phenols, detergents, oxygen, visibility, and temperature;

        ii. Goskomecologia - two vessels and central stationary laboratory in Baku established monitoring stations focused mainly on oil pollution;

        iii. Academy of Sciences - lack of resources caused the cancellation of all research cruises and no scientific activity will continue.

      b. Fresh Water Monitoring. There are 28 permanent monitoring stations established by the Hydromet service located at 20 sites along the Kura river, and 14 stations on the lakes. The following main elements are analysed: dissolved oxygen, BOD5, ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phenols, phosphorus, sulfates, hydrocarbons, detergents, Cu, Zn, Al, Mn, Ti, Hg, and some pesticides;

      c. Groundwater. Geological Committee has established a grid of 46 monitoring stations where the main water quality parameters are measured;

      d. Atmospheric Pollution. Monitoring of atmospheric pollution is done by the Azerbaijan Hydromet. Available data show high levels of industrial discharges and pollutants caused by vehicular transportation in the city of Baku.

    E Legal and Regulatory Framework

    37. Lack of adequate legal and regulatory framework in Azerbaijan creates an urgent need to adopt a full package of environmental legislation and regulations that would supersede and update the old and inefficient framework issued by the FSU. The legislation and regulations to be revised and introduced should be transparent to all relevant parties, and should be easily enforceable.

    38. Currently, ambient standards for water, air, and soil quality are very stringent and not compatible with the current institutional capacity of the environmental management system in the country to encourage compliance. Adherence to those standards will either force continued noncompliance, thereby weakening the credibility of environmental protection activities, or close much of the country's industries.

    39. According to the State Ecological Committee, several new legislative acts, based on international experience and market economy conditions, covering a spectrum of environmental issues were submitted to the Parliament of the Republic in the spring of 1994 and are awaiting passage. The national sanitary authority in cooperation with the Ecology Commission have prepared a manual on national environmental standards that also is awaiting action by the Parliament.

    Table.1. Water Quality-Reservoirs and Distribution Points, September 1994


    Location   Bacteriological Indexes        Physical and Chemical                                                   Indexes             No. of         Did not    No. of       Do not meet             tests          meet       GOST Tests   GOST 2874                            2874 82                 82 for                            for Potable             Potable                            Water                   Water                                                    turbid residual smell                                                           chlorine  1 Reservoir    69 West     32         22          31          29         28          -  2 Reservoir    110 West    60         1           60          59         18          -  3 Reservoir    160 West    13         5           13          13         12          -  4 Reservoir    160 North   10         2           10          10         10          -  5 Reservoir    119 West    26         3           26          -          20          -  6 Kura II    135,135 Km,    Pump    station     13                     13          13         13          -  7 Binagadi    Pump    station     10         3           8           7          8           -  8 Binagadi    Water    Distribution    Junction    1-         4           11          11         6            -  9 Reservoir    69 East     46         5           46          46         11           3Cl  10 Reservoir    110 East    6          5           6           6          6            -  11 Reservoir    126 East    6          6           6           6          6            -  12 City     Waterpipe     network    107        15          108         92         91           -  13 Binagadi     technical     water      7          2           10          10         10           -    TOTAL      346        76          346         298        247          6

    1/ According to the State Ecological Committee, there is a significant problem with the operation of reservoirs 69 East, 69 West, and 110 East, which suggests the bacteriological pollution of the reservoirs.

    2/ Maximum pollution with coloforms is registered in water from Surachami (46%), Azizbekov (36.9%), yasamal (32.4%) and Mazurani (22%) districts.

    3/ One pumping station has been constructed at lake Beyuk shor to pump water out of the lake. Another one is under construction to intercept inflows from the Binangadi area. Similar schemes are planned to reduce the water level in lakes Buly Bulya and Ganii Gel.

    4/ For example, the "Bolnica Semashko" hospital, which has an isolation ward, located in the central part of the city, is equipped with a septic tank that has a capacity of 18,00 m3, with a daily discharge of 72 m3 of untreated or sterilized wastes into the municipal wastewater network.

    5/ The map at the end of the annex shows the location of the municipal and industrial sewage outlets.

    6/ Accodring to the State Ecological Committee, in 1993 alone, 80,000 tons of toxic wastes from industrial activities accrued; and for the past 30 years, 15-20 million tons of solid domestic wastes was accumulated at the city disposal site.


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